Pivko D. & Vojtko R., 2021: A review of travertines and tufas in Slovakia: Geomorphology, environments, tectonic pattern, and age distribution. Acta Geologica Slovaca, 13, 1, 49–78.


A review of travertines and tufas in Slovakia: Geomorphology, environments, tectonic pattern, and age distribution

Daniel Pivko & Rastislav Vojtko

Department of Geology and Palaeontology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, 842 15 Bratislava, Slovakia; daniel.pivko@uniba.sk; rastislav.vojtko@uniba.sk

Abstract

Slovakia is rich in the Pliocene, Pleistocene travertines and Holocene tufas and travertines, which were studied in 82 localities. Travertines are developed in the spring mounds (49 %) with central orifices frequently in crater-like forms. Fissure ridges (6 %) with vertical veins were identified. A few mounds and ridges were connected to large coalesced mounds (2 %). Many tufas and travertines were formed in perched springline deposits (21 %). The mounds, ridges, and perched springline deposits have the slopes with prograding cascades, fewer included waterfalls. The dams on slopes were very rare. Most tufas were formed in dams along streams (20 %), usually with waterfalls and caves. The upper Miocene freshwater limestones in 5 localities were originated in lakes and marshes (2 %). The Slovak travertines are usually related to regionally important faults such as the N–S striking Central Slovak Fault System (17 sites). Westwards, the faults related to the travertine occurrences the NE–SW striking faults prevailed (3 sites). In northern and eastern Slovakia, the faults have generally W–E to NW–SE direction (15 sites). The travertines are often formed on the fault intersections and they are related to the extensional tectonics.


Key words: travertine, tufa, freshwater limestone, morphology, Neogene, Quaternary, neotectonics


Manuskript doručený: 2020-10-14

Manuskript revidovaný: 2021-03-29


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AGEOS 2021, roč. 13, č. 1

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